Struktur Tema dalam Teks Saintifik (Abstrak dan Rujukan)

Struktur Tema dalam Teks Saintifik

(Thematic Structure in Scientific Texts)

*Nor Hazila Mat Lazim

norhazila91@yahoo.com

Pusat Literasi dan Transformasi Sosiobudaya,
Fakulti Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan,

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Ariezal Afzan Hassan
ariezal@umk.edu.my

Pusat Pengajian Bahasa dan Pembangunan Insaniah,

Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia.

Terbit dalam talian (published online): 2 Disember 2019

Sila rujuk: Nor Hazila Mat Lazim dan Ariezal Afzan Hassan. (2019). Struktur tema dalam teks saintifik. Jurnal Bahasa19(2), 285-306.

Abstrak

Teks saintifik kaya dengan pelbagai fitur linguistik yang unik dalam menyampaikan pengetahuan, nilai, dan kepercayaan saintifik. Salah satunya ialah aspek tema dan rema. Tema mendukung peranan utama sebagai titik tolak mesej dalam ayat. Setiap pemilihan tema adalah bersebab dan bukan sewenang-wenangnya dipilih, kerana yang dipentingkan akan dikehadapankan dalam ayat. Lebihan mesej, iaitu rema mengandungi maklumat baharu yang hendak disampaikan kepada pembaca atau pendengar. Makalah ini menjalankan analisis tekstual terhadap jenis tema yang digunakan dalam sembilan teks saintifik berlatarbelakangkan tiga disiplin yang berbeza, iaitu sains tulen (ST), sains sosial (SS), dan   (SK). Kemudian, bahagian teks saintifik disintesiskan mengikut model IMRD yang dicadangkan oleh Swales (1990) dan data dianalisis melalui pendekatan Nahu Fungsional Sistemik (Halliday & Matthiessen, 2014). Dapatan kajian menunjukkan ketiga-tiga disiplin teks saintifik mengutamakan tema bertanda berbanding tema biasa. Kajian ini menyimpulkan bahawa pemilihan jenis tema berhubung rapat dengan tabii disiplin dan tabii bahagian teks saintifik. Secara tidak langsung, kajian ini memberikan penjelasan secara holistik terhadap struktur tema dan pemahaman secara komprehensif terhadap dimensi tekstual wacana saintifik.

Kata kunci: Struktur tema, jenis tema, disiplin teks, analisis tekstual, IMRD

Abstract

Scientific texts are rich in unique linguistic features in conveying scientific knowledge, values, and beliefs. One of them is the theme and rheme aspect. Theme plays an important role as a point of departure of a message and each theme selection has its own purpose and is not arbitrarily chosen because what is prioritized will be foregrounded in sentences. The remainder of the message is called rheme, which contains new information to be delivered to readers or listeners. This study is an analysis of the types of theme used in nine research articles from three different disciplines, namely from the pure sciences (ST), social sciences (SS), and humanities (SK). Subsequently, the journal structures were synthesized according to the IMRD model by Swales (1990) and the data were analysed using the Systemic Functional Grammar approach (Halliday & Matthiessen, 2014). The result reveals that the texts of all three disciplines show a preference for marked theme as compared to unmarked Theme. More importantly, this study concluded that the selection of the types of theme is associated with the nature of the discipline and the nature of the rhetorical parts of scientific texts. This research provides a holistic explanation of the thematic structure and a comprehensive understanding of the textual dimension of scientific texts.

Keywords: Thematic structure, theme types, disciplinary texts, textual analysis, IMRD

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