Masalah Komunikasi Lisan dalam Kalangan Pesakit Neuro di Kelantan

(Oral Communication Problems among Neurological Patients in Kelantan)

Che Rabiaah Mohamed

crabiaah@usm.my

Pusat Pengajian Sains Kesihatan,

USM, Kampus Kesihatan,

16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Abdullah Yusoff

dr.aby.pekak@gmail.com

Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Kota Bharu,

Jalan Maktab, Pengkalan Chepa,

16109, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Abstrak

Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti masalah berbahasa dan kesukaran yang dihadapi oleh pesakit neuro semasa berkomunikasi lisan. Kajian ini berasaskan kerangka teori “Model Komunikasi Lasswell” dan menggunakan kaedah pensampelan bertujuan.  Data bahasa dengan komunikasi dikumpulkan berdasarkan interaksi antara penyelidik dan 12 orang pesakit neuro yang boleh berkomunikasi dua hala menggunakan soal selidik separa berstruktur.  Interaksi lisan tersebut dirakamkan dan ditranskripsikan secara verbatim, serta dianalisis berdasarkan tema.  Dapatan kajian menunjukkan enam daripada 12 orang pesakit neuro dalam kajian mengalami masalah dan kesukaran dalam komunikasi lisan.  Daripada enam orang yang mengalami masalah dan kesukaran komunikasi lisan, seorang mengalami ketidaklancaran bertutur, dua orang mengalami ketidakmampuan memproduksikan ujaran, seorang mengalami kesukaran penyebutan dan dua orang tidak berkemampuan bercerita mengikut urutan peristiwa.  Kajian juga mendapati banyak faktor yang menyebabkan kesukaran bahasa dan pertuturan dalam kalangan pesakit neuro seperti menghidap penyakit di otak, kecederaan kepala dan kecacatan artikulasi pertuturan. Dapatan kajian ini penting untuk memberikan kesedaran kepada pesakit, keluarga pesakit, kakitangan kesihatan dan orang awam tentang masalah komunikasi yang dihadapi oleh pesakit neuro supaya strategi intervensi yang sesuai dapat dilaksanakan.

Kata kunci: pertuturan, komunikasi lisan, kecacatan komunikasi, pesakit neuro, afasia

Abstract

This study aims to identify the language problems and difficulties faced by neuro patients during oral communication.  It  is  based on the framework proposed in Lasswell’s Communication Model.Purposive sampling technique was used in recruiting participants.  The linguistic data were collected based on the interaction between the researcher and 12 neurological patients who were able to participate in a two-way communication using semi-structured questionnaires.  The oral interactions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim and were analysed using thematic analysis.  Results  show that six out of of 12 patients  faced problems and had difficulties in oral communication.  Out of the  six participants who had communication difficulties, one had problems with fluency, two had problems in language expression, one had problems with articulation and two had problems in explaining the  sequence of events. Findings also  reveal that there were many factors that contributed to the language and speech difficulties among neurological patients such as disease of the brain, head injuries and abnormalities of speech articulators.  These findings are  important to provide awareness to patients, families, health professionals and the public about the oral communication problems faced by the neurological patients in order to implement appropriate intervention strategies for them.

Keywords: speech, oral communication, communication disorders, neurological patient, aphasia

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