Sistem Fonologi Dialek Melayu Saribas Berasaskan Fonologi Generatif

(The Phonological System of the Malay Dialect of Saribas Based on Generative Phonology)

Noor Azureen Hamid @ Ahmed

naha_azureen@siswa.ukm.my

Felo USM.

Sharifah Raihan Syed Jaafar

s_raihan@ukm.edu.my

Pusat Pengajian Bahasa dan Linguistik,

Fakulti Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan,

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Tajul Aripin Kassin

tajul@usm.my

Pusat Pengajian Ilmu Kemanusiaan,

Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Abstrak

Kajian deskriptif ini menghuraikan sistem fonologi dialek Melayu Saribas (DMSbs). Kajian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif yang bersifat deskriptif dengan mengaplikasikan kaedah kajian lapangan. Pengumpulan data linguistik DMSbs diperoleh daripada sepuluh orang penutur jati DMSbs di pekan Saratok, Sarawak melalui rakaman perbualan audio. Data DMSbs memperlihatkan kewujudan dua bentuk diftong sahaja dalam struktur permukaan, iaitu [ay] dan [oy], manakala diftong [aw] hanya wujud dalam struktur dalaman. Diftong dalam DMSbs terdiri daripada dua bentuk, iaitu kata asal dan pendiftongan. Sistem konsonan DMSbs turut mempunyai ciri-ciri khusus yang tidak ada pada dialek Melayu lain, iaitu kewujudan fonem /ɣ/ yang dihasilkan melalui frikatif oleh titik artikulasi dorsal. Konsonan likuida /l/ dan frikatif velar /ɣ/ dalam DMSbs tidak dibenarkan hadir pada posisi koda, sama seperti kekangan koda dalam dialek Melayu lain, namun berbeza daripada dialek Melayu Kuching dan dialek Melayu Rejang yang membenarkan kehadiran kedua-dua fonem ini di akhir kata.

Kata kunci:  vokal, konsonan, diftong, struktur dalaman, struktur permukaan

Abstract

This study employs a qualitative descriptive approach and applying the field research to describe the vowel and consonant inventory of Saribas Malay dialect (DMSbs). The data was collected from ten native speakers of DMSbs in Saratok, Sarawak, using audio recordings. The data shows the existence of only two forms of diphthongs in the surface structure: [ay] and [oy], while the diphthong [aw] only exists in the deep structure. There are two forms of diphthongs in DMSbs. The findings of this study show that the consonant system of DMSbs has special features that are not found in the other Malay dialects, which is the existence of the phoneme /ɣ/, which is produced as a fricative from the dorsal point of articulation.  The liquid consonant /l/ and the velar fricative /ɣ/ are not permitted in the coda, as in other Malay dialects. In contrast, the Malay dialects of Kuching and Rejang permit the presence of both phonemes in the coda.

Keywords:  vocal, consonant, diphthong, underlying structure, surface structure

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