Penguasaan Bahasa Melayu dalam Kalangan Murid Pekak: Suatu Sorotan dari Perspektif Linguistik

Abdullah bin Yusoff dan Che Rabiaah binti Mohamed

Abstrak

Kedudukan mata pelajaran Bahasa Melayu (BM) dalam sistem pendidikan negara sangat penting. Murid-murid pekak yang bersekolah juga terpaksa menguasai BM jika mereka ingin maju dalam akademik walaupun mereka terpaksa berhadapan dengan berbagai-bagai rintangan untuk menguasainya. Makalah ini merupakan penelitian penulis berdasarkan sorotan linguistik tentang penguasaan BM murid pekak dan kesukaran yang dihadapi oleh mereka. Hal ini berguna kepada pihak yang terlibat dengan pendidikan murid pekak kerana BM ialah mata pelajaran penting bagi mendapatkan sijil dalam peperiksaan awam dan kelayakan untuk memohon pekerjaan dengan kerajaan. Oleh itu, kegagalan untuk lulus dalam mata pelajaran BM di kalangan murid pekak membawa impak yang besar kepada mereka. Makalah ini juga mencuba mengenal pasti beberapa keadaan yang menyukarkan murid pekak menguasai BM secara teori dan praktis. Dari segi teori, BM mempunyai ciri-ciri yang sukar dikuasai oleh kebanyakan murid pekak. Kebanyakan murid pekak juga tidak memperoleh BM seperti yang diperoleh oleh kanak-kanak berpendengaran normal. Dari segi praktis pula, kebanyakan daripada mereka tidak mendapat pendedahan awal yang secukupnya tentang BM. Di samping itu, kertas kerja ini juga akan membuktikan bahawa ‘pekak’ bukanlah faktor utama yang menghalang mereka dalam menguasai BM. Cadangan-cadangan juga dikemukakan bagi membantu murid pekak mempertingkatkan penguasaan BM. Setelah memahami situasi dan kesukaran yang dialami oleh murid pekak dalam menguasai BM, diharapkan guru-guru dapat:  (1) mengenal pasti cara murid pekak memperoleh dan mempelajari BM,  (2) mengenal pasti kesukaran mereka dalam menguasai BM (mendengar dan bertutur, membaca dan menulis), (3) mengenal pasti hubungan antara memperoleh dan mempelajari BM dengan kesukaran yang   dialami, dan (4) merancang strategi untuk membantu murid pekak menguasai BM.

Abstract

The Malay language subject plays an important role in the Malaysian education system. The deaf pupils who are unable to hear speech sound also have to perform well in the subject although it is so problematic to them. This article investigates the performance and problems faced by the deaf pupils in learning Malay language based on the linguistic view. The result of the study is important to all parties who are in­volved in educating the deaf since the language is a compulsory sub­ject for obtaining a certificate in the national examination. A pass grade in the subject is also one of the criteria for applying jobs in the government services. As such, poor performance in the Malay lan­guage paper will result in some negative impacts in the future of the deaf This article also identifies factors that cause difficulty to the deaf in performing well. Based on the linguistic views, the characteristics of the Malay language are difficult to many of the deaf to master. They do not acquire the language as hearing pupils do. Apart from that, many of the deaf do not have early and enough exposure to the lan­guage. Another aim of this article is to prove that ‘hearing problem ‘faced by many of the deaf are not the main factor that prevent them from getting better grade in the subject. A few suggestions were also drawn up on how to help this group of pupils to achieve better. It is hoped that by understanding the situation mentioned, the teacher of the deaf will identify: (l) the processes of acquiring and learning the language, (2) the difficulty faced by the deaf in learning the language skills (lis­tening, speaking, reading and writing) (3) the relationship between acquiring and learning language and the difficulty faced by them, and (4) the strategies to help the deaf to achieve better grade in the Malay language paper.

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