Pertuturan Gagap dan Rawatannya: Kes Komunikasi dalam Bahasa Melayu

Abdul Rahim bin Mat Yassim

Abstrak

Penyakit gagap merupakan sebahagian daripada kecacatan komunikasi yang memang menjadi satu fenomena dalam kehidupan manusia. Penyelidikan ini dibuat untuk melihat pola pertuturan orang gagap yang berbahasa Melayu dan dibandingkan dengan pertuturan orang gagap di Barat.  Pengumpulan data dibuat melalui rakaman perbualan bebas dengan penghidap gagap berbahasa Melayu yang berumur antara 23 hingga 25 tahun. Penyelidik mendapati pola pertuturan penghidap gagap berbahasa Melayu ialah pengulangan, pemanjangan, selaan dan jeda sama seperti pola pertuturan orang gagap di Barat. Dengan yang demikian, rawatan yang digunakan untuk merawat gagap di kalangan kanak-kanak dan orang dewasa boleh dilakukan berdasarkan kaedah-­kaedah rawatan pemulihan yang diamalkan di Barat.  Walau bagaimanapun, perbezaan kecil pola pertuturan orang gagap yang ditemui penyelidik merupakan perbezaan yang wujud daripada perbezaan tabii bahasa Melayu dengan bahasa di Barat. Begitu juga dengan rawatan, pemulihan cara Barat boleh digunakan apabila ia disesuaikan dengan tabii bahasa Melayu. Kajian ini membuktikan bahawa terdapat kesejagatan dalam pola pertuturan orang gagap di dunia.

Abstract

Stuttering is a form of human communication disorder that is accepted as a phenomenon in life. The purpose of this study is to identify the speech patterns among Malay stutterers and to compare them with those proposed by current researchers in the West. The data for this study is collected through free speech conversa­tions between the researcher and five informants aged between 23-54 years old. The data was then analyzed for patterns in repetition, pro­longation, interjection and pause. The finding indicates that patterns identified from this sample are similar to those found among stutterers in the West. As such, it is the contention of this research that remediation approach practiced in the West could also be used or adapted in de­signing remediation for Malay stutterers. It can also be concluded from the evidence that the major speech patterns of stutterers are uni­versal. However, some minor differences in pattern were found between the Malay stutterers and western stutterers. These differences can be attributed to the differences in the nature of the Malay language as compared to western languages. Thus, this research recommends that the remediation approaches used in the West, although suitable for remediation of Malay stutterers, should only be used after some ap­propriate modification.

RUJUKAN

Asmah Hj. Omar, “Peranan Ilmu Linguistik dalam Negara Malaysia” dlm. Dewan Bahasa, hlm. 484, November 1971. Asmah Hj. Omar, 1986. Nahu Melayu Mutakhir. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Asmah Hj. Omar, 1990. Aspek Bahasa dan Kajiannya. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan  Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Bloomfield, L., 1979. Language. London: George Allan & Unwin.

Bryngelson, B., “A Study of Literality of Stutterers and Normal Speakers” dlm.  Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 4, hlm. 231-234, 1939.

Crystal, D., 1980. Introduction to Language Pathology. London: Edward Arnold.

Crystal, D., 1981. Disorders of Human Communication 3. New York: Springer­ Verlagl Wien.

Crystal, D., 1984. Linguistic Encounters With Language Handicap. New York: Basil Bl.

Davis, D.M., 1940. “The Relation of Repetitions in the Speech of Young Children to Certain Measures of Language Maturity and Situational Factors. Part II and III” dlm. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 5, hlm. 235-246, 1940.

Eisenson, J. (ed.), 1975. Stuttering: A Second Symposium. New York: Harper &  Row, Publishers.

Garman, M., 1990. Psycholinguistics. New York: Cambridge University Press.  

Istilah Linguistik, 1991 . Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Gregory, H. & Hil, D., 1993. “Differential Evaluation and Differential Therapy for Stuttering Children” dlm. R.F. Curlee (ed.), Stuttering and Related Disorders of Fluency. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers.

Ingram, D., “Phonological Patterns in the Speech of Young Children” dlm. Lan­guage Aquisition [Fletcher, P., Garman, M., (ed.). Cambridge: C.U.P., hlm. 133-148,1979.

Malmkjaer, K.(ed.), 1991. The Linguistics Encyclopedia. London: Routledge.

Mencher, G.T., "Speech and Hearing Disorders: A Worldwide Problem Requiring a Worldwide Perspective" dlm. International Perpectives On Communica­tion Disorders, [Gerber, S.E. & Mencher, G.T. (ed.)]. Canada: Elks and Royal Purple, hlm. 3-10,1987.

Richards, J. Plat J. & Heidi, w., 1985. Dictionary of Applied Linguistics. England: Longman Group Limited.

Shames, G.H. & Wiig, E.H., 1982. Human Communication Disorder. Ohio: Charles  E. Merrill Publishing Co.

Shames, G.H., Wiig, E.H. & Secord, W.A., 1998. Human Communication Disor­der: An Introduction. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Shelton, R.L., 1978. “Disorders ofArticulation” dlm. Speech, Language & Hear­ing, [D.H. Skinner & R.L. Shelton (ed.)]. Reading, M.A: Addison-Wesley.

Wingate, M.E., 1976. Stuttering Theory and Treatment. New York: Irvington Publishers, Inc.

Wingate, M.E., 2002. Foundations of Stuttering. New York: Academic Press.

Winitz, H., “Repetitions in the Vocalizations and Speech of Children in the First  Two Years of Life” dlm. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, Mono­graph Supplement 7, hlm. 55-62,1961.

(Teks Penuh)

Hantar Maklum Balas Anda