Gangguan dalam Sistem Giliran Bertutur Kanak-Kanak Melayu: Suatu Analisis Pragmatik

Noor Aina Dani dan Zaitul Azma Zainon Hamzah

Abstrak

Dalam makalah ini. Teori Relevan (1986, 1995), telah digandingkan dengan kerangka perbualan Schlobinski (1996). untuk membincangkan gangguan dalam sistem giliran bertutur kanak-kanak Melayu. Hasil kajian mendapati kanak-kanak mencetuskan gangguan dengan tujuan menyampaikan maklumat, menambahkan maklumat, dan mendapatkan giliran bertutur. Namun, terdapat juga gangguan yang dicetuskan oleh kanak-kanak untuk menyatakan bantahan dan mencetuskan konflik. Seterusnya, pendekatan pragmatik didapati telah menghasilkan dapatan kajian yang jitu tentang gangguan dalam sistem giliran bertutur kanak-kanak Melayu. .

Abstract

This article aimed to analyse interruptions in the turn-taking system of speech among Malay children. The results of the study showed that children create interruptions to give and add information, to get their turns to speak and to offer sympathy. However, interuption is also used as a strategy to show disagreement and to create conflict. Thus, the pragmatics approach is established as a capable way of interpreting the meaning of uttrerances in the Malay children s con­versation. The combination of both Relevance Theory and Schlobinski’s conversation analysis framework has resulted in significant findings about utterance meaning and the communicative behavior of Malay children.

RUJUKAN

Allwood, J.,1977, On the Analysis of Communication Action. In H. Brenner (ed.), (1980). The Structure ofAction. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Blackmore, D., 1993. Understanding Uterances: An Introduction to Pragmatics. Oxford: Blackwell Publshers.

Brown, G., dan Yule, G., 1983. Discourse Analysis. London: Cambridge Univer­sity Press.

Burgess, R., 1994. In the Field: An Introduction. London: Routledge.

Cixourel, Aaron V.,1992. The Interpenetration ofCommunicative Context: Examples from Medical Encounters, in Alexander Duranti and Charles Goodwin (eds.), Rethinking Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, hlm. 291-311.

Grundy, P., 1995. Doing Pragmatics. Great Britain: Edward Arnold.

Jamaliah Mohd. Ali 1995. “Malaysian Student Seminars: A Study of Pragmatic  Features in Verbal Interaction”. Tesis Ph.D., Universiti Malaya, 1995.

Jurafsky, D., dan Martin, J.H., 2000. Speech and Language Processing: An Introduction to Natural Language Processing, Computational Linguistics, and Speech Recognition. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.

Marsis Muhammad Nasir, 1997. “Perkembangan Makna dari Semantik ke  Pragmatik”. Jumal Dewan Bahasa 41 (11): 1008-1022. Mey, J., 1993. Pragmatics: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Morais, Elaine, 1994. “Malaysian Business Talk: A Study of Conflicts and Non­ Conflict in Verbal Interactions”. Ph.D., Thesis, Universiti Malaya.

Nor Hashimah Jalaluddin, 1992a. Semantik dan Pragmatik: Satu Pengenalan. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Nor Hashimah Jalaluddin, 1995. “Bahasa Jual Beli dalam Perniagaan Runcit: Satu Analisis Semantik dan Pragmatik”. Tesis Ph.D., Universiti Malaya, 1995.

Nor Hashimah Jalaluddin 1996. “Tatacara Kajian Lapangan: Satu Panduan”. Jurnal Dewan Bahasa. 40 (1): 44-54.

Nor Hashimah Jalaluddin, 1998. “Bahasa, Sosialisasi, dan Kognitif: Satu Pendekatan Teori Relevan”. Jumal Dewan Bahasa 42 (12): 1084-1093.

Ramos F. Yus, 1998. “A Decade of Relevance Theory”. Journal of Pragmatics. 305-345.

Sacks, H., Schegloff, E., dan Jefferson, G., 1974. A Simplest Systematics for the Organization of Turn Taking for Conversation. Language 50(4): 696-735.

Sacks, H., Schegloff, E., dan Jefferson, G., 1974. A Simplest Systematics for the Organization of Turn Taking for Conversation. Language 59(4): 696-735.

Sacks, H., Schegloff, E., dan Jefferson, G., 1978. “A Simplest Systematics fo the Organization of Turn Taking for Conversation”. Dlm. Jim Schenkein (ed.). Studies in the Organization of Conversational Interaction. New York: Aca­demic Press.

Samarin, W., 1967. Field Linguistics: A Guide to Linguistic Field Work. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston Inc.

Schlobinski, Peter, 1996. “Empirische Sprachwissenschaft”. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, in Stefan Titscher et al. Methods of Text and Dis­course Analysis 2000 London: Sage Publications.

Sperber, D., dan Wilson 1986a. Relevance Theory: Communication & Cognition. Oxford: Basil Balckwell.

Sperber, D., dan Wilson, 1990. Representation and Relevance. Mental Rrepresentations, (ed.), Kempson R.M. London: Cambridge University Press.

Sperber, D., dan Wilson, D., 1995. (2ndedn): Relevance. Communication and Cog­nition. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Yule, G., 1996. Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Zaitul Azma Zainon Hamzah, 2000. “Penggunaan Bahasa dalam Pertuturan Kanak­Kanak Melayu-Satu Analisis Pragmatik”. Tesis Sarjana, Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Zaitul Azma Zainon Harnzah, 2002, “Gangguan dalam Sistem Giliran Bertutur Kanak-kanak Melayu: Satu Analisis Pragmatik”. Tesis Ph.D., Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Zulkifley Hamid, 1991. “Pentafsiran Makna Pragmatik Sebagai Kaedah yang Lebih Lengkap”. Jurnal Dewan Bahasa 35(7): 570-575.

(Teks Penuh)

Hantar Maklum Balas Anda