Wacana Bahasa dalam Teori Sastera Pascamoden

Mana Sikana

Abstrak

Bahasa mempunyai kedudukan yang lstimewa dalam dunia kesusasteraan. Bahasa telah lama dianggap sebagai alat kepada dunia sastera. Melalui pengantaraan bahasa, pengarang secara kreatif membina naratif atau penceritaannya. Teori pascamoden pula telah menjadi bahasa sebagai wacana, ini dapat dibuktikan dalam kajian strukturalisme, semiotik, dan pascastrukturalisme. Perbicaraan dunia sastera sebenarnya perbicaraan bahasa dan wacana. Malah, muncul sebuah teori yang semata-mata melihat sastera daripada jurus pandangan bahasa, iaitu stilistik. Dalam tulisan ini cuba membincangkan segala wacana itu, supaya dapat dilihat peranan dan penilaian bahasa dalam dunia teori sastera.

Abstract

Language has always held a distinctive status in the world of litera­ture. It has long been regarded as a tool in the literature world. Through language, an author creatively generates a narration or storyline. Post­modern theories have utilised language as a discourse as manifested in the analysis of structuralism, semiotic and post-structuralism. The dis­cussion in the world of literature is actually a discussion on language and its discourse. In fact, a theory called stylistic was born solely to analyse literature from the viewpoint of language. This article attempts to discuss all the discourses so that we will be able to see the roles and evaluation of language in the world of literature theory.

RUJUKAN

Asmah Haji Omar, 1980. Analisa Wacana. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Appignanesi, Richard dan Gamatt, Chris, 1999. Mengenal Post-modernisme. Bandung: Penerbit Mizan.

Baudrillard, Jean, 1981. For a Critique o/the Political Economy  of the Sign. New York: Telos Press.

Danziger, M.K., dan Johnson W.S., 1983. Pengenalan Kritikan Sastera. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Enkvist, Nils E., 1973. Linguistics and Style, Amsterdam: North-Holland Publish­ing Company.

Fokkema, D.W., 1978. Theories  of Literature in the Twentieth Century. London: C. Hurst & Corporation.

Fowler, Roger, 1977. Essay on Style and Language. New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Freeman, Donald C., 1970. Linguistics and Literature Style. New York: Holt,  Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

Foucault, Michael, 1980. Power/Knowledge. London: The Harvester Press.

Guerin, Wilfred L., et al., 1999. A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Harland, Richard, 1993. Beyond Superstructuralism. New York: Routledge.

Hayes, Curtis W., 1969. Linguistics and Literature: Prose and Poetry. New York:  Harper and Row.

Lacan, Jacques, 1968. The Language  of the Self New York: Delta Books.

Lacan, Jacques, 1972. “The Mirror Stage”, dlm. Easthope, Antony dan McGowan,  Kate (ed.). A Critical and Cultural Theory Reader. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Lacan, Jacques, 1977. Ericts: A Selection. London: Tavistock Puiblication.

Lacan, Jacques, 1977. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis. Lon­don: Tavistock Publication.

Levin, Samuel, 1962. Linguistic Structure in Poetry. Hague: The Hague Press.

Liaw Yock Fang, 1970.lkhtisar Kritik Sastera. Singapura: Pus taka Nasional.

Lutfi Abas, 1982. “Keindahan Sastera melalui Analisa Wacana”, dlm. Farid M. Onn (ed.). Stilistik Simposium Keindahan Bahasa. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Mana Sikana, 2003. Membina Keunggulan Tradisi Sastera. Singapura: Pustaka Nasional.

Mangantar Simanjuk, 1979. “Aplikasi Linguistik dalam Pengkajian dan Penulisan Karya Kreatif”, dlm. Farid M. Onn (penyusun). Stilistik Simposium Keindahan Bahasa. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Mellard, James M., 1991. Using Lacan: Reading Fiction. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Mukarovsky, J., 1984. “Standard Language and Poetic Language”, dlm. Prague School Reader on Asihetic, Literary Structure and Style. New York: Paul Gavin.

Murray, J.M., 1960. The Problem of Style. London: Oxford Paperback.

Norris, Christopher, 1983. Deconstruction: Theory and Practice. New York: Methuen.

Ohmann, Richard, 1964. “Generative Grammars and the Concept of Literary of Literary Style”, dlm. Donald c..Freeman, Linguistics and Literary Style. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

Ouden, Bernard Den, 1975. Language and Creativity. Lisse: The Peter de Ridder Press.

Sarup, Madan, 1993. Post-structuralism and Post-modernism, An Introductory Guide to Post-structuralism and Post-modernism. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Saussure, Ferdinand de, 1983. Course in General Linguistics. London: Peten Owen.

Selden Raman and Widdowson, 1993. Contemporary Literary Theory. Lexington: The University of Kentucky.

Simpson, P., 1996. Language Through Literature. London: Routledge.

Steiner, George, 1967. Language and Silence. London: Faber and Faber.

Toolan, Michael, 1998. Language in Literature: An Introduction to Stylistics. New York: Arnold.

Wales, K., 1989. A Dictionary of Stylistics. London: Harlow.

Webber, J.1., 1989. The Stylistics Reader: From Roman Jakobson to the Present. London: Arnold.

(Teks Penuh)

Hantar Maklum Balas Anda