Gaya Hipotaksis dan Parataksis

dalam Kerangka Nahu Fungsian-Sistemik

Mohammad Fadzeli Jaafar

Abstrak

Kajian ini bertujuan untuk memeri penggunaan ayat hipotaksis dan parataksis dalam bahasa Melayu, khususnya hubungan antara struktur makna dan gaya. Dalam pemerian ini, gaya yang menandai kegemaran pengarang dianalisis secara terperinci. Data bahasa diambil daripada teks Sungai Mengalir Lesu, karya Sasterawan Negara, A. Samad Said. Dalam analisis struktur ayat hipotaksis dan parataksis, makalah ini mengaplikasi nahu fungsian-sistemik. Dalam pertimbangan struktural, klausa tak setara dan klausa setara dianalisis berdasarkan kehadiran atau ketiadaan unsur penghubung. Dalam aspek makna pula, analisis tertumpu pada makna yang diwujudkan oleh klausa pengembangan dalam sesuatu ayat kompleks, iaitu dalam memperinci atau memperluas makna sesuatu klausa utama. Hasil analisis ini menunjukkan bahawa struktur ayat parataksis lebih kompleks berbanding dengan ayat hipotaksis, dan klausa perluasan lebih dominan digunakan dalam kedua-­dua ayat kompleks tersebut.

Abstract

This study aims to describe the usage of hypotactic and paratactic in the Malay language, specifically in the relation between structure, meaning and style. In describing them, the style that is specific to the writer is analyzed in detail. The data is taken from the text Sungai Mengalir Lesu, written by National Laureate A. Samad Said. In the analysis of hypotactic and paratactic structures, this article applies the theoretical framework of the functional-systemic grammar. In the structural consideration, dependent and independent clauses are ana­lyzed taking into view the presence and absence of conjunctions. As for meaning, the analysis focuses on the meaning borne by expansion clauses in complex sentences viz. in elaborating or extending the mean­ing of the main clause. This analysis show that the paratactic struc­ture is more complex than that of the hypotactic, and the expansion clause is more dominant in usage in both types of complex sentences.

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