Teori Rangkaian Sosial dalam Kajian Peralihan dan Pengekalan Bahasa

Roksana Bibi Abdullah

Abstrak

Teori Rangkaian Sosial yang mula-mula sekali diperkenalkan oleh ahli antropologi sosial mengandaikan bahawa struktur rangkaian peribadi mempengaruhi perlakuan dan personaliti manusia. Teori Rangkaian Sosial yang kemudiannya menjadi begitu popular di kalangan ahli sosiolinguistik ini menjadi gagasan dalam mencari sebab dan akibat bagi peralihan bahasa. Teori ini mengandaikan bahawa jaringan rangkaian sosial seseorang menjadi penyebab kepada pemilihan dan penggunaan bahasa seseorang; dan sekali gus menjadi punca kepada peralihan sesuatu bahasa dalam sesuatu masyarakat penutur. Keakraban dan multipleksiti menjadi tumpuan utama dalam analisis rangkaian sosial iaitu sebagai pengukuh bagi satu-satu perlakuan, termasuk perlakuan berbahasa. Pelbagai teknik telah digubal dan diaplikasi bagi kajian rangkaian sosial ini seperti yang telah dijalankan oleh Milroy, Mayer, Li Wei, Gal dan sebagainya.

Abstract

Social anthropologists, who first developed social network analysis suggest that the structure of personal networks influences human behaviour and aspects of personality. The last few decades have wit­nessed a surge of interest amongst sociolinguists in the concept of social network and its relevance to the study of language behaviour. Social network approach assumes that there is a dialectic relationship between speakers’ linguistic behaviours and interpersonal relations; that is, speakers language use is influenced and shaped by the types of social contact they have, and it actively contributes to the social rela­tions which speakers maintain. Density and multiplexity pertain to the structure and content of the network respectively. Analysis of the struc­tural aspects of social network, which, in addition to density, include anchorage, reachability and range, has generated much of the litera­ture on social network. Various analytic techniques have been devel­oped and applied by sociolinguists, i.e. Milroy, Mayer, Li Wei, Gal etc.

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