Kesan Persamaan Bentuk terhadap Perkembangan Leksikal Kanak-Kanak Penutur Dwibahasa

Christina Schelletter

Diterjemahkan oleh

Abd.Razak Abu Bakar

Abstrak

Kajian terdahulu rnengenai kedwibahasaan orang dewasa menunjukkan bahawa kognat (padanan terjemahan yang sama dari segi bunyi dan ejaan) lebih pantas diterjemahkan berbanding dengan bukan kognat. Kajian tersebut mengemukakan bahawa terdapat representasi yang berbeza-beza bagi dua kategori dalam ingatan penutur dwibahasa (Kroll dan Stewart, 1994, van Hell dan de Groot, 1998). Dengan mengan­daikan bahawa representasi kanak-kanak yang dwibahasa sama dengan representasi orang dewasa yang dwibahasa, kesan persamaan bentuk antara perkataan hams ada. Makalah ini membicarakan kata nama sama bentuk dalam perkembangan awal leksikal kanak-kanak yang bertutur dwibahasa bahasa Jerman/bahasa Inggeris yang berusia setahun sebelas bulan hingga dua tahun sembilan bulan serta kesan persamaan bentuk dalam penamaan gambar dan terjemahan dalam dua kelompok kanak­-kanak berusia 8-9 tahun yang dwibahasa bahasa Jerman/bahasa Inggeris. Dalam hal ini, persamaan bentuk berbeza daripada status kognat perkataan, bahawa ia mengimplikasikan hanya dari segi bunyi. Dengan mengambil kira cara kanak-kanak yang dapat mendengar mampu memperoleh perkataan, nampaknya perlulah dibataskan persamaan bentuk hanya setakat modaliti ini sahaja. Begitu juga dengan penyampaian butiran dalam penterjemahan adalah bergantung pada pendengaran. Keputusan kajian ini menunjukkan kesan persamaan bentuk dalam perkembangan awal leksikal yang pada tahap ini, perkataan yang sama bentuk kerap terdapat dalam permulaan tempoh pencerapan dalam kedua-dua bahasa dan di samping itu, perkataan yang sama bentuk lebih berkemungkinan mempunyai padanan terjemahan dalam bahasa Inggeris kanak-kanak tersebut. Berkenaan dengan penterjemahan, persamaan bentuk terhasil dalam pendaman yang rendah bagi kedua-dua arah bahasa. Dengan itu dapatan ini mengesahkan bahawa persamaan bentuk mempengaruhi representasi pada orang dewasa dan kanak-kanak yang mempelajari bahasa.

Abstract

Previous studies of adult bilinguals have shown that cognates (trans­lation equivalents similar in sound and spelling) are translated faster than non-cognates and different representations for the two catego­ries in bilingual memory have been suggested (Kroll and Stewart, 1994, van Hell and de Groot, 1998). Assuming that bilingual children’s rep­resentations are similar to those of adults, effects of form similarity between words should also be observed. This paper examines form-similar nouns in the early lexical development of a bilingual German/English child aged 1;11-2;9 as well as effects of form similarity in picture naming and translation in two groups of German/English chil­dren age 8-9. Form similarity here differs from cognate status of a word in that it implies similarity in sound only. Considering the way hearing children acquire words, it seem necessary to restrict the simi­larity of words to this modality. Similarly, the presentation of items in translation task was auditory. The results show an effect of form simi­larity in early lexical development, whereby form-similar words oc­curred frequently in the beginning of the observation period in both languages and were more likely to have a translation equivalent in the child’s English. In the translation task, form similarity resulted in lower latencies for both language directions. The results thereby confirm that form similarity affects representations in both adult and child learners.

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