Penggunaan Bahasa dalam Sesi Kaunseling dari Sudut Lakuan Bahasa

Wan Robiah Meor Osman

mowrobiah@cls.unimas.my

Hamidah Abdul Wahab

awhamidah@cls.unimas.my

Siti Marina Kamil

ksmarina@cls.unimas.my

Pusat Pengajian Bahasa,

Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

Abstrak

Artikel ini berfokus pada kajian penggunaan bahasa dalam kalangan kaunselor pelatih dalam sesi kaunseling di Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS). Secara khusus, kajian ini dilakukan untuk mengenal pasti lakuan bahasa (LB) yang lazim digunakan oleh kaunselor pelatih dalam sesi kaunseling untuk mempengaruhi klien (pelajar). Selain itu, kajian ini juga melihat adakah benar tanggapan masyarakat terhadap khidmat kaunseling sebagai khidmat nasihat. Kajian yang mengaplikasikan metodologi linguistik dalam dunia kaunseling ini memanfaatkan teori lakuan bahasa (TLB), yakni pengkategorian LB cadangan Bach dan Harnish (1979). Pengkategorian LB ini dipilih atas dasar kepersisannya memperinci dan menghuraikan perbezaan linguistik, berpandukan kategori LB seperti pengumuman (constatives), arahan (directives), perjanjian (commissives) dan pengakuan (acknowledgements). Bagi kajian awal ini, seramai 30 orang kaunselor pelatih program kaunseling UNIMAS dipilih dan sesi kaunseling yang mereka kendalikan dirakam serta ditranskripsikan untuk melihat fenomena LB yang lebih dominan. Daripada hasil kajian didapati lakuan bahasa yang paling dominan ialah LB pertanyaan, bersesuaian dengan matlamat khidmat kaunseling itu sendiri yang bertujuan meneroka masalah klien. Dapatan ini secara tidak langsung telah menolak tanggapan khidmat kaunseling sebagai khidmat nasihat. Kajian ini difikirkan amat bermanfaat sebagai panduan dan rujukan kepada masyarakat pembaca dan pengkaji bahasa, terutamanya mereka yang terlibat secara khusus dalam bidang kaunseling.

Kata kunci: penggunaan bahasa, lakuan bahasa, kaunseling, kaunselor pelatih

Abstract

This article focuses on the language use in counselling sessions conducted by trainee counsellors at Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS). Research was conducted to identify the common speech acts used by trainee counsellors during counselling sessions in order to influence their clients (students). The research also aims to test the validity of the societal perception of counselling services as “advisory services”. The research applies linguistic methodology and the speech act theory, in particular speech act categorisation (Bach & Harnish, 1979) to language behaviour in counselling practices. This form of categorization, with its four major speech act categories – constatives, directives, commisives and acknowledgement was chosen based on its precision and its ability to describe the linguistic differences found in speech acts. A total of 30 UNIMAS counselling programme students (trainee counsellors) of UNIMAS were sellected for this research. Their counselling session were recorded and transcribed in order to identify which was the most dominant speech act. It was found that the most dominant category is “question”. This accorded with the main objective of the counseling sessions, which was to identify the clients’ problems. This proves that the societal view of counselling services as being predominantly advisory in nature is wrong. The findings of this research can be used as reference and guide by readers and language researchers, particularly those who are involved in the counselling field.

Keywords: language use, speech act, counselling, trainee Counsellors

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