Komponen-Komponen Komunikatif dalam Karangan Bahasa Melayu Sekolah Menengah

Hashim Othman

Abstrak

Makalah ini melaporkan hasil kajian penerokaan kecekapan komunikatif dalam karangan bahasa Melayu peringkat sekolah menengah. Secara khusus, kajian bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti komponen-komponen komunikatif dalam karangan (perlakuan), iaitu bentuk autentik bagi menilai kecekapan komunikatif. Kajian ini menerapkan idea komunikatif Hymes dalam penaksiran kefasihan berbahasa, khususnya kefasihan mengarang melalui penggunaan sebuah model komunikatif dan sebuah model wacana. Data kajian dikumpul melalui sampel tiga jenis karangan, iaitu penerangan, pemujukan, dan pelahiran. Statistik analisis faktor digunakan untuk menganalisis data. Kajian telah menunjukkan kehadiran komponen sosiolinguistik, wacana, dan tatabahasa dalam ketiga-tiga jenis karangan. Setiap komponen mempunyai subkomponen-subkomponennya sendiri yang memperlihat­kan penyesuaian model komunikatif yang digunakan. Tatabahasa merupakan varian utama kecekapan komunikatif dalam ketiga-tiga jenis karangan. Dalam karangan penerangan dan pemujukan, susunan variannya ialah tatabahasa, wacana, dan sosiolinguistik. Sebaliknya, dalam karangan pelahiran susunan variannya ialah tatabahasa, sosiolinguistik, dan wacana.  

Abstract

This article reports the findings of an exploratory study on the com­municative competence of secondary school Malay essays. The main purpose of the study was to identify the communicative components in essays (performance) i.e. an authentic form to evaluate the com­municative competence. The study applied Hyme’s communicative idea to evaluate writing proficiency through a communicative and a discourse model. Research data were gathered from three types of essay namely explanatory. persuasive. and expressive. Factor analysis was used to analyze the data. The study showed the pres­ence of grammar, discourse and. sociolinguistics components in all the three types of essay. Each component is made up of a num­ber of subcomponents which are the modification of the communi­cative model used. Grammar was the principle components for all types of essay. In explanatory and persuasive essays the arrange­ment of variants are; grammar; discourse and; sociolinguistics. As for expressive essay the arrangement is grammar; sociolinguistics and; discourse.

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