Masalah Pembelajaran: Tanda dan Simptom Kecacatan Komunikasi Lisan Murid Pendidikan Khas

(Learning Difficulties:  Signs and Symptoms of Oral Communication Disorders in Special-Education Students)

Abdullah bin Yusoff

dr.aby.pekak@gmail.com

Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Kota Bharu,

Jalan Maktab, Pengkalan Chepa,

16109, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, MALAYSIA.

Tel.: +609-7717700.

Che Rabiaah Mohamed

aleef@hotmail.com

Pusat Pengajian Sains Kesihatan

Kampus Kesihatan, USM

16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, MALAYSIA.

Abstrak

Kajian tinjauan keratan rentas ini bertujuan mengenal pasti prevalen murid yang mengalami kecacatan komunikasi lisan dalam kalangan murid pendidikan khas kategori bermasalah pembelajaran. Kajian ini juga mengenal pasti simptom umum dan simptom spesifik kecacatan komunikasi lisan yang dihadapi oleh murid berkenaan. Teknik pensampelan secara penyesuaian. Sampel terdiri daripada 1125 murid pendidikan khas dalam program integrasi di 56 buah sekolah di Kelantan. Senarai semak kecacatan pertuturan atau bahasa oleh Hannel berskala 4 Likert digunakan bagi mengutip data yang dilakukan melalui semakan dokumen profil murid, pemerhatian terhadap tingkah laku dan temu bual dengan ibu bapa. Kajian mendapati enam peratus (n=67) daripada murid yang dikaji mengalami kecacatan komunikasi lisan. Daripada perbandingan min, didapati simptom umum “lambat dalam belajar untuk bercakap” merupakan simptom yang “sangat berkaitan” dengan kecacatan komunikasi.  Kajian mencadangkan guru yang mengajar murid ini menggunakan komunikasi augmentatif dan alternatif  bagi memaksimumkan kefahaman mereka.

Kata kunci: pendidikan khas,  kecacatan komunikasi, tinjauan keratan rentas,  masalah pembelajaran, komunikasi lisan

Abstract

The aim of this cross-sectional survey is to identify the prevalence of learning-disabled children who have language and communication disorders. Besides that, this study also investigates the general and specific symptoms of language and communication disorders in these children. The study applied the adaptive sampling technique and involved 1125 special-education children from 56 integrated schools in Kelantan. The Speech or Language Impairment Checklist of Hannell, with a 4-point Likert scale, was used to collect the data, which was gleaned from the children’s profile documents, observations of their behaviour and interview with parents. The study found that 6 per cent (n=67) of the children in the study were considered as having difficulty with verbal communication.  When comparing the mean score, the general symptom “Delay in learning to communicate” is the most common symptom of communication disorder.  Therefore, it is recommended that teachers who teaching such students use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) to optimize students’ understanding.

Keywords: special education, communication disorders, cross-sectional study, learning disabilities, oral communication

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