KEPENTINGAN GEOLINGUISTIK DALAM KEBERDAYAAN ETNOLINGUISTIK MELAYU SINGAPURA

(The Significance of Geolinguistics to the Ethnolinguistic Vitality of the Malays in Singapore)

Mohamed Pitchay Gani Mohamed Abdul Aziz

pitchay@gmail.com

Fakulti Bahasa dan Linguistik, Universiti Malaya,

506003 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Tel.: +65 9085 0824

Abstrak

Kajian ini meneliti kepentingan geolinguistik dalam mempengaruhi tahap keberdayaan bahasa dan bangsa Melayu di Singapura dengan menggunakan pendekatan sosiologi, iaitu teori keberdayaan etnolinguistik (Giles et al., 1977). Data dikumpul secara objektif melalui sumber sosiologi, ekonomi, demografi dan sejarah yang didapati daripada banci penduduk, dokumen kajian dan laporan. Kajian ini juga melibatkan pemerhatian terhadap kesekitaran bahasa dan persuratan Singapura. Bahan dianalisis mengikut rangka kerja teori tersebut yang menilai prestasi bahan berdasarkan empat faktor keberdayaan, iaitu status, demografi, sokongan institusi, dan geografi. Kajian ini mendapati kedudukan bahasa Melayu di Singapura dalam lingkungan rendah hingga sederhana, iaitu bahasa ini berpotensi bergerak ke arah defisit bahasa. Namun demikian, sokongan kukuh institusi tidak formal menyumbang kepada pengekalan etnisiti Melayu walaupun tidak mencukupi untuk memelihara kepentingan bangsa dan bahasa Melayu di Singapura. Hubungan geolinguistik didapati sangat penting dalam memastikan bahasa Melayu di Singapura kekal relevan dan digunakan di luar lingkungan budaya.

Kata kunci: geolinguistik, keberdayaan etnolinguistik, linguapolitik, pengekalan bahasa, perubahan bahasa, dasar bahasa, etnisiti

Abstract

This research investigates the influence geolinguistics has on the ethnolinguistic vitality of Malays in Singapore using a sociological approach. Data were collected objectively based on sociological, economic, demographic and historical resources from censuses, research documents, and reports, as well as direct and indirect observations on the language and literary environment in Singapore. Data were analyzed following the theoretical framework of Giles et al. (1977)’s ethnolinguistic vitality in which status, demography, institutional support, and geography are identified as factors that affect the vitality of a group. The outcome of the analysis shows the vitality of the Malay language is in the range of low to medium, and there is a possibility of moving towards language deficit. However, there is strong support from informal organizations that contribute to the survival of Malay ethnic identity but this support is insufficient to safeguard the interests of the Malays together with the importance of the Malay language in Singapore. Geolinguistics is found to be the most important factor in ensuring that Malay remains relevant and continues to be used beyond its cultural sphere.

Keywords: geolinguistics, ethnolinguistic vitality, linguapolitics, language maintenance, language shift, language policy, ethnicity

RUJUKAN

Agheyisi, R. & Fishman, J.A., “Language Attitude Studies: A Brief Survey Methodological Approaches” dlm. Anthropological Linguistics 12:131-57, 1970.

Ainol Amriz Ismail,  1999. “Benteng terakhir Melayu Singapura akan dirobohkan”dlm Utusan Online, 12 Mei.http://www.utusan.com.my/utusan/info.asp?y=1999&dt=0513&pub= Utusan_Malaysia&sec=Muka_Hadapan&pg=fp_02.htm [Capaian 27 Oktober 2013].

Asmah Haji Omar, 2008. The Malays in Australia: Language, Culture, Religion. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Asmah Haji Omar, 2010. Carik-Carik Bulu Ayam. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Berita Harian, 1994. “Tiga Stesen Radio, Satu Rancangan” dlm. Berita Harian, 10 Mac: hlm. 5

Berita Harian, 1998. “Deejay Warna berpantun dan berlawak” dlm. Berita Harian, 30 Januari: hlm. 6

Berita Harian, 2006. “Cikgu Ariff Dapat Anugerah Doktor Persuratan” dlm. Berita Harian, 27 Ogos: hlm. 4.

Bourhis, R.Y., 1979. “Language in Ethnic Interaction: A Social Psychological  Approach”dlm H. Giles & B. Saint-Jacques (ed.), Language and Ethnic Relations. Oxford: Pergamon Press, hlm. 117-142.

Bourhis, R.Y., 1982. “Language Policies and Language Attitudes” Le monde de la Francophonie” dlm. E. B. Ryan H. Giles (eds.), Attitudes Towards Language Variation: Social and Applied Contexts. London: Edward Arnold Ltd.

Chambers, J.K. & Trudgill, P., 1980., Dialectology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cooper, R. L.  “Introduction to Language Attitude II” dlm. International Journal of Sociology of Language 6: hlm. 5-9, 1975.

Cooper & Fishman, J.A.  “Language Attitudes” dlm. International Journal of Sociology of Language 3: hlm. 5-19, 1974.

Fatimah Zainal. “Masuri S.N. Karyawan Tamu DBP” dlm. Dewan Sastera 28: 1 hlm. 54-55, 1998.

Fishman, J.A., 1966. Language Loyalty in the United States. The Hague: Mouton.

Fishman, J.A., 1977. “Ethnicity and Identity” dlm H. Giles. (ed.), Language Ethnicity and Intergroup Relations.London: Academic Press, hlm. 14-52.

Gibbons, J & Ramirez, E., 2004. Maintaining a Minority Language: A Case Study of Hispanic Teenagers. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Giles, H.,  “Accent Mobility: A Model and Some Data” dlm Anthropological Linguistics 15: hlm. 87-105, 1973.

Giles, H., 1977. Language, Ethnicity and Intergroup Relations. London: Academic Press.

Giles, H., 1978. “Linguistic Differentiation between Ethnic Group” dlm H. Tajfel (ed.), Differentiation Between Social Groups: Studies in the Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations hlm. 361-393. London: Academic Press.

Giles, H., Bourhis, R.Y. & Taylor, D.M., 1977. “Towards A Theory Of Language in Ethnic Group Relations” dlm H. Giles. (ed.), Language Ethnicity and Intergroup Relations hlm 307-48. London: Academic Press.

Giles, H. &Saint-Jacques, B. (ed.), 1979. Language and Ethnic Relations.Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Han, W.C., 2012. “APM 2012: Holding Up a Mirror to the Malay Music Industry dlm Channelnewsasia.com, 23 November. http://www.channel newsasia.com/ stories/ entertainmentfeatures/view/1239005/1/.html [Capaian 3 Februari 2013].

Hernandez-Campoy, J. M. & Conde-Silverstre, J.C., “Sociolinguistic and Geolinguistic Approaches to the Historical Diffussion of Linguistic Innovations: Incipient standardization in Late Middle English” dlm International Journal of English Studies 5: 1 hlm. 101-34, 2005.

Hoch, S. & Hayes, J.J., “Geolinguistics: The Incorporation of Geographic Information Systems and Science” dlm The Geographical Bulletin 51: hlm. 23-26, 2010.

Ihsan Noorzali, 2010. “Upsi, Asas ‘50 Jalin Kerjasama” dlm Berita Harian Online, 11 Mei. http://www.bharian.com.my/bharian/articles/Upsi_Asas50jalinkerjasama/Article/index_html [Capaian 21 September 2012].

Ismail Kassim, 1974. Problems of Elite Cohesion – A Perspective from Minority Community. Singapore: Singapore University Press.

Lily Zubaidah Rahim, 2001. The Singapore Dilema: The Political and Educational Marginality of the Malay Community. 2nd ed. US: Oxford University Press.

Lim, L. & Ong A., 2012. “Malay-Muslims Have Done Well in S’pore: PM” dlmThe Straits Times, Julai 1. http://www.pmo.gov.sg/content/pmosite/mediacentre/inthenews/primeminister/2012/July/malay-muslims_havedo newellinsporepm.html [Capaian 10 Februari 2013].

Loh, P. D., 2011. “The Best Confucius Institute in the World” dlm China Daily, 25 September.http://www.ci-ntu.com/article/news/best-confucius-institute-world-china-daily [Capaian 26 Oktober 2011].

Maarof Salleh, 2011. “Mencari Dinamisme Guru Melayu” dlm Berita Harian, 28 Januari. http://asas50.com/iltizam/2011/01/28/mencari-dinamisme-guru-melayu-bh-28-01-11/ [Capaian 2 November 2013].

Marketing Magazine, 2007. “Mediacorp Buys into Indonesian Media Firms” dlm Marketing Magazine, 28 Jun 2007.http://www.marketing magazine.com.my/index.php/134-breaking-news-archives/308-mediacorp-buys-into-indonesian-media-firms [Capaian 5 November 2013].

Ministry of Education, 2004. “New Programmes in Special Assistance Plan (SAP) Schools,” 4 September.http://www.moe.gov.sg/media/press/2009/09/new-programmes-in-special assistance-plan-sap-schools.php [Capaian 25 Oktober 2011].

Ministry of Education, 2010. “New Centre to Enhance Professional Development of Malay Language Teachers,” 30 Januari. http://www.moe.gov.sg/media/press/2010/01/new-centre-to-enhance-professi.php [Capaian 23 Oktober 2013].

Mohamed Pitchay Gani Mohamed Abdul Aziz, 2005. Leksikon – Direktori Penulis Melayu Singapura Pasca 1965. Singapura: Angkatan Sasterawan 50 & National Library Board.

National Arts Council 2009. “Singapore Writers Festival 2009 Presents UNderCovers.”

18 September. http://www.ifacca.org/national_agency_news/2009/09/18/singapore-writers-festival-2009-presents-undercove/ [2 November 2013]

Nazri Hadi Saparin, 2008. “Unisim Meterai Mou dengan Varsiti Malaysia” dlm Berita Harian, 12 Ogos.http://cyberita.asia1.com.sg/singapura/story/0,3617,132421,00.html? [Capaian 22 Oktober 2013].

Nurul’ain Razali, 2012. “Singapura hos Majlis Sastera SEA 2015” dlm Berita Harian, 23 Oktober. http://cyberita.asia1.com.sg/singapura/singapura-hos-majlis-sastera-sea-2015 [Capaian 27 Oktober 2012].

Ong, A., 2012. “Ex AMP HeadCritiques Myth of Meritocracy” dlm Straits Times, 9 September. www.rima.sg/subindex/asp/id=A065_12 [10 Februari 2013]

Pei, M.A., 1965. Invitation to Linguistics: A Basic Introduction to the Science of Language. US: Doubleday and Company.

Rasi Gregorutti, S.B., 2002. “What I speak, Who I am: Patterns of Language Choice and Ethnolinguistic Identity Among Mexican-American Adolescents”. Tesis Phd. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database (UMI Number: 3077759).

Riney, T., 1998. “Toward More Homogeneous Bilingualisms: Shift Phenomena in Singapore” dlmMultilingua 17: hlm. 1-23.

Ryan, E.B. & Giles, H. (ed.) 1982. Attitudes Towards Language Variation: Social and Applied Contexts. London: Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd.

Ryan, E. B., Giles, H., & Sebastian R.J., 1982. “An Integrative Perspective into The Study of Attitudes towards Language Variation” dlm E. B. Ryan & H. Giles (ed.), Attitudes Towards Language Variation: Social and Applied Contexts hlm. 34-62. London: Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd.

Sachdev, I., “Language And Identity: Ethnolinguistic Vitality Of Aboriginal Peoples In Canada” The London Journal of Canadian Studies 11: hlm.41-59, 1995.

Salim Osman, 2008. “Singapore Islamic School in Java Tie-Up – Madrasah Teaming with Muslim Boarding School in Indonesia to Boost Education Quality” dlm The Straits Times, 26 Ogos: hlm. A12

Salmiah Ismail. “Wawancara Dengan Masuri S.N. Mengenai Topik Kami Mampu Mendaulatkan Bahasa Dan Sastera Melayu” dlm Dewan Sastera 17: 4,  hlm.20-24, 1987.

Sidek Saniff, 1996. “Ucapan selaku Menteri Negara Kanan (Pendidikan) Pertemuan Guru-Guru Nusantara (PGN) Ke-8 Pada Rabu, 4 Disember di Begonia Pavilion, Ntuc Pasir Ris Resort.http://a2o.nas.sg/stars/public/viewDocx.jsp?stid=17729&lochref=viewHTML.jsp?pdfno=1996120403&keyword= [Capaian 25 Oktober 2013].

Sidek Saniff ,2000. “Ucapan selaku Menteri Negara Kanan (Sekitaran) Merangkap Pengerusi Majlis Melayu Singapura Sempena Majlis Antarabangsa Bahasa Melayu 21 Ogos di Hotel Istana, Kuala Lumpur. http://a2o.nas.sg/stars/public/viewDocx.jsp?stid=12471&lochref= viewPDF-body.jsp?pdfno=ss20000821l.pdf&keyword= [Capaian 25 Oktober 2013].

Singapore. Department of Statistics, Ministry of Trade and Industry, 2011. Census of Population 2010 Statistical Release 1, Demographic Characteristics, Education, Language and Religion. Singapore: Department of Statistics, Ministry of Trade and Industry.

Singapore Writers Festival. http://www.singaporewritersfestival.com/about-us [Capaian 24 Oktober 2013].

Siti Nor Jahana Samingon 1998. “Masuri S.N. Dan Suratman Markasan Sahajakah Penulis Singapura?” [Surat kepada editor] dlm Dewan Sastera 28: 3 hlm. 6.

Su, G., 2010. “Speech as President, Nanyang Technological University at the Official Opening of Wang Gungwu Library At Chinese Heritage Centre on Tuesday, 14 September at Wang Gungwu Library, Chinese Heritage Centre. http:// news.ntu.edu.sg /pages/newsdetail.aspx?URL=http://news.ntu.edu.sg/news/Pages/Speeches2010_Sep14a.aspx&Guid=f3e10396-25d4-4c0c-8580 c63064db91d9&Category=Speeches [Capaian 23 Oktober 2012].

Tan, K. P., 2004. “Ethnic Representation onSingapore Film and Television” dlm L. A. Eng (ed.), Beyond Rituals and Riots: Ethnic Pluralism and Social Cohesion in Singapore. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press.

Tajfel, H., “Social Identity and Intergroup Behavior” dlm Social Science Information 11: 65–93, 1974.

Tajfel, H., 1978. Differentiation Between Social Groups: Studies in the Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. London: Academic Press.

The Brunei Times, 2008. “Brunei, S’pore Joint Radio Programme” dlm. The Brunei Times, 1 Julai. http://www.bt.com.bn/node/44993/print [3 Februari 2013].

The Straits Times, 1987. “Singapore will be Closely Watched, Says Pelita” dlm. The Straits Times, 20 Mac: hlm. 8

The Straits Times 1991. “PM Reveals Deliberate Move to Agitate Malay Community” dlm The Straits Times, 22 Julai: hlm. 23

The Straits Times, 1999. “SM’s Remarks Must Be Seen In Right Light” dlm. The Straits Times, 30 September: hlm. 28

Wahyudi Soeriaatmadja 2008. “SIA to Promote Indonesia Tourism” dlm. The Straits  Times, 22 Ogos: hlm. A20

Walsh, S.P.  “The Roar of the Lion City Ethnicity, Gender, and Culture in the Singapore Armed Forces” dlm Armed Forces & Society 33: 2 hlm.265-285, 2007.

Wawancara secara bebas antara penulis dengan Encik Mohamed Noh Daipi selaku Pengarah Pusat Bahasa dan Penolong Pengarah Jabatan Perancangan dan Pembangunan Kurikulum, Kementerian Pendidikan Singapura di pejabatnya di Pusat Bahasa pada 11 Disember 2012.

Zainal Abidin Borhan. “Uniknya Jati Diri Melayu Singapura” dlm. Warta Gapena Oktober hlm 2-3, 2010.

Zul Othman, 2012.“No Regrets Over Big Move To JB” dlm. New Paper, 10 Julai. http://business.asiaone.com/Business/My%2BMoney/Property/Story/A1Story20120709-358072.html [Capaian 3 Februari 2013].

(Teks Penuh)

Hantar Maklum Balas Anda