Ucap Selamat, Ungkapan Anomali namun Dimengerti dalam Komunikasi: Penjelasan dari Perspektif Pragmatik

Hasmidar Hassan

hasmidar@usm.my

Pusat Pengajian Ilmu Kemanusiaan

Universiti Sains Malaysia

Abstrak

Persoalan tentang ucap selamat ini banyak dikaji dari perspektif sosiolinguistik dan sosiopragmatik khususnya yang berasaskan Teori Kesantunan dan Teori Lakuan Bahasa.  Walau bagaimanapun, belum ada kajian di luar negara mahupun tempatan yang membincangkan ucap selamat ini dari segi bentuk logik dan makna proposisinya. Melihat bentuk logik ucap selamat dan makna proposisinya yang anomali, penggunaan ucap selamat ini sebenarnya menuntut penjelasan yang  sempurna dan menyeluruh. Mengapakah  makna proposisinya yang anomali (dan ada yang menganggapnya kosong dari segi semantik)  membolehkan ungkapan ini dimengerti dan difahami dan terus digunakan dengan meluasnya dalam komunikasi manusia sehari-hari? Penggunaan ucap selamat yang sekian lama digunakan dalam komunikasi manusia sehari-hari ini didasari oleh sebab yang tertentu dan seharusnya dapat dijelaskan berdasarkan pendekatan yang tertentu. Oleh itu, dengan menggunakan pendekatan pragmatik, khususnya Teori Relevans yang  didukung oleh prinsip Relevans Kognitif dan prinsip Relevans Komunikatif, akan dijelaskan mengapakan bentuk ucap selamat yang tersebut sedemikian, dan mengapa penutur  bahasa Melayu menggunakannya sejak sekian lama walaupun makna proposisinya  anomali?

Kata kunci: sosiopragmatik, literal, anomali, pragmatik, teori Relevans, prinsip Relevans Kognitif dan prinsip Relevans Komunikatif

Abstract

Issues on greetings have been studied from the perspective of sociolinguistics and socio-pragmatics, mainly based on  Politeness Theory and Speech Act Theory. However, there has to be a study conducted  internationally or in Malaysia that enquires into greetings in terms of its logical form and propositional meanings. Looking at its logical form and anomalous propositional meanings, the usage of these greetings actually requires an indepth analysis.   It has been claimed that propositional meaning of greetings are anomalous (some scholars claimed that greetings are zero semantically) and yet they are understood by hearers and widely used among speakers in daily communication. There must thus be a reason why greetings had survived over the years and this is reasonable grounds for analysis.  Thus, by using the pragmatic approach mainly the Relevance theory, a research has been carried out to explain why logical forms of greetings as such are  being used widely by native speakers of the Malay Language despite its propositional meaning being anomalous.

Keywords: sociopragmatic, literal, anomaly, pragmatic, Relevance theory, relevance cognition and communication approach

RUJUKAN

Carston, R dan Blakemore, D. 1999.  “The Pragmatics of and-Conjunctions: The Non-narrative Cases”. UCL Working Papers in Linguistics 11, hlm. 1-20.

Dele Femi Akindele,   “Lumela/Lumela: A Socio-Pragmatic Analysis of Sesotho Greetings” dlm.  Nordic Journal of African Studies 16:1,  hlm.1–17, 2007

Duranti, Alessandro,   “Universal and Culture and Specific Properties of Greetings” dlm Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 7:1, hlm. 63-97, 1997.

Emery, P.G.,  “Greeting, Congratulating and Commiserating in Omani Arabic Language” dlm.  Culture and Curriculum 13:2  hlm.196–217, 2000.

http://prpm.dbp.gov.my/Search.aspx?k=selamat). [Capaian 20 Oktober 2013].

Li  Dan. “A Contrastive Study Of Greetings And Partings In English And Chinese” dlm. www.gdfs.edu.cn/xb/files/two/lidan.DOC‎, [Capaian 21 Oktober 2013].

Maysa’a Kadhim Jibreen, “The Speech Act of Greeting:  A Theoretical Reading” dlm. Journal of Kerbala University 8:1, Humanities  2010. daripada http://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=69248 [Capaian 20 Oktober 2013].

Nicholas Allott. “Relevance Theory dlm. olk.uio.no/nicholea/papers/Draft_for_Allott,_N._(forthcoming)._Relevance_theory._In_A._Capone,_F._Lo_Piparo_&_M._Carapezza_(Eds.),_Perspectives_on_Pragmatics_and_Philosophy._Springer.pdf [Capaian 18 Okt 2013].

Notes from a Linguistic Mystic. “How Are You?” Isn’t Actually Asking How You Are, and Other Strange Greetings Habits” dlm. http://linguisticmystic.com/2007/02/12/how-are-you-isnt-actually-asking-how-you-are-and-other-strange-greeting-habits/ [Capaian 20 Oktober 2013].

Sperber, D. & Wilson, D. 1986. Relevance: Communication and Cognition. Oxford: Blackwell.

Sperber, D. & Wilson, D., 1995. Relevance: Communication and Cognition. Edisi Kedua. Oxford: Blackwell

Sperber, D. dan Wilson, D.,  “Pragmatics, Modularity and Mind-reading” dlm. Mind and Language 17:1-2: 3-23, 2002.

Sperber, D. & Noveck, I. 2004. “Introduction” dlm.  Noveck, I. &  Sperber, D. (ed.) Experimental Pragmatics. Palgrave, 1-22.

Wilson, D. 2009. “Relevance Theory” dlm.  L. Cummings (ed..) The  Pragmatics

Encyclopedia.  London: Routledge, hlm 393 – 99.

Yaw Sekyi-Baidoo. “Greetings, Faith and Solidarity: An Analysis of the Use of Greetings and Responses” in the International Central Gospel church (ICGC) of Ghana, http://wikieducator.org/images/d/d3/Greetings_,_Faith_Solidarity.pdf [Capaian 19 Oktober 2013].

(Teks Penuh)

Hantar Maklum Balas Anda