Proses Nasalisasi Vokal dan Ciri Akustik Vokal Nasalan

SATO, Hirobumi @ Rahmat

manis2bongok@gmail.com

Sriwaja Ladis

srirul@yahoo.com

Abstrak

Sesetengah pengkaji tempatan telah merumuskan proses nasalisasi vokal bahasa Melayu secara teoretis, seperti (i) Nasalisasi secara progresif: V → Ṽ/[+nasal] ____, dan (ii) Nasalisasi secara regresif: V → Ṽ/____ [+nasal]. Makalah ini bertujuan untuk meneliti semula rumus ini dan memastikan ciri akustik vokal nasalan bahasa Melayu secara objektif, berdasarkan salah satu kaedah fonetik eksperimental, iaitu analisis akustik berkomputer. Eksperimen ini memfokuskan kata yang mengandungi kombinasi fonem -VKV atau -VKKV seperti /-iŋi/ atau /-iŋɡi/ yang mengikuti konsonan oral sahaja. Daripada hasil analisis terhadap sejumlah data eksperimen terbukti bahawa vokal nasalan memperlihatkan satu ciri kenasalan pada gambar spektrogram secara visual, iaitu komponen frekuensi tinggi bertaburan di atas jalur forman yang berfrekuensi sekitar 7,000Hz ke atas. Kombinasi fonem /iŋi/ dalam kata mengelilingi /məŋəliliŋi/, misalnya, menunjukkan nasalisasi dalam bentuk fonetik [iĩgĩŋg̃ĩ]. Secara keseluruhan dapat disimpulkan bahawa nasalisasi vokal berlaku apabila vokal oral didahului atau diikuti oleh konsonan nasal dalam serentetan ujaran. Namun, proses nasalisasi vokal pada kedudukan itu, pada hakikatnya, tidaklah semudah apa yang tergambar dalam rumus yang tersebut. Penulis mengemukakan hasil ini dalam bentuk lakaran tetapi tidak disimpulkan dalam rumus baru.

Kata kunci: asimilasi nasal, bunyi peralihan, komponen frekuensi, konsonan nasalan, nasalisasi, vokal nasalan

Abstract

A number of Malay scholars have theorized about vowel nasalization in the Malay language, including disccussions on (i) progressive nasalization: V → Ṽ/[+nasal] ____, and (ii) regressive nasalization: V → Ṽ/____ [+nasal]. This paper aims to review these formulae and identify the acoustic characteristics of nasalized vowels of Malay in an empirical manner, using an experimental phonetic method, i.e. computerized acoustic analysis. This experiment focused on words that contain the phoneme combination -VCV or -VCCV as /-iŋi/ or /-iŋɡi/ that follows oral consonants. The analysis resulting from a certain number of experimental data proves that the nasalized vowels visually demonstrate a feature of nasality on the spectrogram, namely the high-frequency components scattered on the formant band above approximately 7,000Hz. A combination of phonemes /iŋi/ in a word mengelilingi /məŋəliliŋi/, for example, shows nasalization in the phonetic form [iĩgĩŋg̃ĩ̃]. From the analysis, it can be concluded that vowel nasalization occurs when an oral vowel is preceded or followed by a nasal consonant in a string of speech, and goes through a complex process unlike what has been formulated in the previous literature. The present researcher has made a sketch of this result but has not devised a new formula.

Keywords: frequency components, nasal assimilation, nasalized consonants, nasalization, nasalized vowel, transitory sounds

Rujukan

Dang,Jianwu,1994. (“Study on an Acoustical Model of Speech Production Structure Including the Vibrations of the Velum and Vocal Tract Wall”), in Reports of the Graduate School of Electronic Science and Technology 15, hlm.150-52. Summary of Ph.D thesis (1992). Shizuoka: Graduate School of Electronic Science and Technology, Shizuoka University.

Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1991. Istilah Linguistik. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Farid M. Onn, 1980. Aspects of Malay Phonology and Morphology: A Generative Approach. Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Hattori, Shiro, 1951.  Tokyo: Iwanami shuppan.

Hattori, Shiro et al., 1956. (“Nasalization of Vowels”), in The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Japan 12(4), pp.189-197. Tokyo: The Acoustical Society of Japan.

Hirano, M. & Takeuchi, Y., 1964. (“On the Acoustical Characteristics of the Nasalized Vowels”) hlm.77-82. Kyoto: Department of Oto Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Kyoto University.

Jones, Daniel, 1956. The Pronunciation of English. 4th edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jo’o, Hakutaro, 2008. . Tokyo: Bensei shuppan.

Koizumi, Tamotsu, 1998. . Tokyo: Daigakushorin.

Komoguchi, Hideo, 1972.  hlm. 83-93. Summary of Ph.D thesis (1972). Tokyo: The Oto-RhinoLaryngological Society of Japan, Inc.

Mataim Bakar, 2007. The Phonotactics of Brunei Malay: An Optimality Theoretic Account. Bandar Seri Begawan: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Mataim Bakar, 2008. Fonologi Dialek Melayu Brunei: Satu Analisis Berdasarkan Teori Standard Fonologi Generatif. Bandar Seri Begawan: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

M. Yunus Maris, 1980. The Malay Sound System. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Teoh, Boon Seong, 1994. The Sound System of Malay Revised. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

(Teks Penuh)

Hantar Maklum Balas Anda