“Proses” dalam Ayat Wacana : Representasi Pengalaman Dunia Penutur

Idris Aman

idrisa@ukm.my

Pusat Pengajian Bahasa dan Linguistik

Fakulti Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Abstrak

Makalah ini bertitik tolak daripada pandangan bahawa manusia bangkit dan mempersembahkan pengalaman dunia mereka melalui bahasa yang dimanifestasikan oleh unsur “proses” dalam klausa. Dengan demikian, analisis proses dalam klausa ialah langkah awal yang penting bagi meneliti cara manusia bangkit dan mempersembahkan pengalaman dunia mereka melalui bahasa. Makalah ini bertujuan mengenal pasti dan menghuraikan jenis proses dalam klausa atau ayat Melayu. Pengenalpastian jenis proses berdasarkan pemikiran nahu fungsional yang mengiktiraf bahasa sebagai sistem komunikasi manusia dan memanfaatkan data wacana naratif. Daripada analisis, dikenal pasti dan ditafsirkan tujuh jenis proses utama dalam bahasa Melayu. Terdapat tujuh cara penutur bahasa Melayu bangkit dan mempersembahkan pengalaman dunia mereka melalui penggunaan proses tertentu dalam klausa dan ayat. Proses berkenaan ialah lakuan, keadaan, minda, kewujudan, pertalian, pemerian, dan verbal. Bagi setiap jenis proses itu dihuraikan sifat masing-masing serta contoh penggunaannya dalam wacana.

Kata kunci: proses, klausa, nahu fungsional, wacana, lakuan, minda, keadaan, kewujudan

Abstract

This article proposes a notion that people present their experience of the world through language manifested through a “process” element in clauses. As such, analyzing the process element in clauses is an important first step to analyse how people present their experience of the world through language. For that purpose, this paper identifies and describes the types of process in Malay sentences or clauses. Identification of the types of process is based on the functional grammar framework that recognizes language as a human communication system, and looks at data from narrative discourse. From the analysis, seven types of main processes in Malay were identified. There are seven ways of how Malay language speakers present their experience of the world, using certain processes in clauses and sentences. These are active, situational, mental, existential, relational, descriptive, and verbal processes. The nature of each type of process is described and examples of usage are provided.

Keywords: process, clause, functional grammar, active process, mental process, situational process, experiential

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