Consumer Behaviour Theory: Approaches and Models Consumer behaviour & consumer decision makingConsumer decision making has long been of interest to researchers. 0000014375 00000 n 0000028669 00000 n Consumer Behaviour Jane Priest is a Teaching Fellow at Edinburgh Business School and teaches parts of the on-campus Marketing course, as well as the Consumer Behaviour elective by distance learning. It refers to the actions of the consumers in the marketplace and the underlying motives for those actions. Furthermore, this model is structured to foresee how users are going to accept and apply new technology like e-commerce (Marangunić & Granić, 2015). Situations of ‘monomania’ are not observed in the real world and are usually ruled out from the analysis of the behaviour of the consumer. The first approach is the Marginal Utility or Cardinalist Approach. 0000014803 00000 n Corpus ID: 200032179. Cardinal Utility Analysis: Human wants are unlimited and they are of different intensity. Although consumer wants in general are insatiable, wants for particular items can be satisfied. processes in consumer behavior. UTILITY THEORY INDIFFERENCE THEORY Vilfredo Pareto William Stanley Jevons Described thru Analyz in total utility Consumer’s preference(TU) and marginal utility(MU) of “various “utils “ is the unit of combinations of goodsmeasure and services” based on Consumer satisfaction nature NOT on totalcan be measured … 0000008616 00000 n This theory which is formulated by Alfred Marshall, a British economist, seeks to explain how a consumer spends his income on di˜erent goods and services so as to attain maximum satisfaction. In the first case the equilibrium of the consumer may be a corner solution, that is, a situation in which the consumer spends all his income on one commodity. 1 :11Stimulus-Organism-Response Model of Decision Making Figure 1 . 0000014589 00000 n 0000006130 00000 n The Theory of Buyer Behaviour (Howard and Sheth 1969) and the Consumer Decision Model (Blackwell, Miniard et al. Consumer 1009 69 (3.2) Much of consumer theory, in particular the earlier contributions, describe consumer behavior as one of … Download Full PDF Package. 0000006895 00000 n This is defined as cp(p,w)=(xEfl(p,w)lx'Efl(p,w)impliesx~x' ornotx'~x } . 0000014536 00000 n Consumer Behaviour in a general sense can be considered to be everything, as every aspect of our lives revolves around the consumption of goods and services. Created by Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen in the late 1960s, the Theory of Reasoned Action centers its analysis on the importance of pre-existing attitudes in the decision-making process. 0000028484 00000 n By a ‘consumer’ we mean a person who has the opportunity to buy The Sociological Model of Consumer Behavior is closely related to the society and the versatile groups involved in the same. 0000004748 00000 n 0000005054 00000 n Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory.....34 Motivational Theory and Marketing Strategies.....35 15. onsumer ehavior ─ Personality and Self oncept ... Consumer behavior is multidimensional in nature and it is influenced by the following subjects: Psychology is a discipline that deals with the study of mind and behavior. This pa-per studies the impact of online reviews on consumer purchasing behavior, shown in Figure 2. According to the theory, specifi… Consumer behavior has been described as an interdisciplinary field of study, and hence, theories explaining consumer behavior take help or Theory is an explanation of facts in an orderly manner. In his famous work of the theory of leisure class, Veblen discovered before many, that researching in consumer behavior is a complex process. The core of the theory posits that consumers act on behavior based on their intention to create or receive a particular outcome. Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility A. 0000014429 00000 n Introduction to Theory of consumer behaviour, Learn Theory of Consumer Behaviour, What is Marginal Utility? • It refers to the actions of the consumers in the marketplace and the underlying motives for those actions. ... theory of loyalty as “a deeply h eld . Concept of consumer behaviour: Part 4 Part 2 Part 3 Part 1 Part 5 • Consumer behaviour is the study of how individual customers, groups or organizations; select, buy, use, and dispose ideas, goods, and services to satisfy their needs and wants. 0000004289 00000 n 0000014053 00000 n The inventory is taken with respect to the focus, the process and the purpose of generating consumer behavior knowledge. 2 :12Cognitive Consumer Behaviour Models (Source: Adapted from (Fawcett and Downs 1992, Moital 2007)) Figure 1 . 0000014107 00000 n This statement is particularly relevant in the tourism field, where the decision to purchase by a consumer is of emotional significance. While no single theory is unifying, each one provides a unique piece of the puzzle in understanding the psychological processes of people and their patterns of consumption. Chairat Aemkulwat . 0000013891 00000 n Save to Library. In fact, sometimes high-level con- struals require no less and even more elaboration than … Four theories stand out as influential for marketers. 0000003831 00000 n 0000007048 00000 n 0000014696 00000 n Meaning and Definition: Consumer behaviour is the study of how individual customers, groups or organizations select, buy, use, and dispose ideas, goods, and services to satisfy their needs and wants. Budget constraints 3. Theory identifies the unexplored areas of consumer behavior. 0000003596 00000 n 0000003122 00000 n 0000028234 00000 n 28 Analytic Cognitive Models The Theory of Buyer BehaviourHoward developed the first consumer decision-model in 1963. 0000013675 00000 n anthropology, sociology, social psychology, marketing research, and economics. The standard model has the following features. THEORIES OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 2. This note studies producer theory and a separate one studies consumer theory. 0000014482 00000 n 0000006436 00000 n Create Alert. More generally, we do not think that the results obtained within CLT can be easily reduced to amount of processing or amount of knowledge. Picture Credits: Consumer Behaviour – Matin khan. I. Theory Foundation There are many kinds definitions of online reviews. Purchase of a holiday, for exam-ple, involves the consumer in a large spend. 4202 0 obj <>stream PDF | This paper explores the role of consumer behavior in present marketing management scenario. We discuss these two approaches separately. Consumer Behaviour: Meaning/Definition and Nature of Consumer Behaviour! 0000010325 00000 n By understanding how consumers decide on a product it is possible for marketers to fill in the gap and identify which product is needed and which products are obsolete in … 0 Consumer is consistent in his preferences. h��YmO�0�+�įw��*�n 4MC�&Uu%����4H���.v��,�����ξ{b�ӳ}��^Ha��r����Z���$�P�,x�� €�-�R�v���H���0H���pF�8a9d*�;z��X�@�h��@% �+� Y�5O�hT���,���u�:r���>��Aq?1a�������Yvp��u�0�ǃ��aqS�7�\(H�ٰ,n�^� ��Yzzl�%���>:z2- *���N�yqW��9�rX\��v:�Y�T���#%����2d�Q5����JhG�� *��09�*W�3�WX���s�6Vql�)�l�i������R�Az�IY�Fy5�N>f���:��ӂ�+d6./���b��6� ���ysj;x{�)��Ԃ7J�2o��fv�����7un��>kt�Yt�E�gQTL'��eJWI=� ��ͽ�7�Gۤ荥bK��1�_S臱9>˾}��3����%��E��6G��q�'�֏���K�`��MDP��mi���$�.�2��^�f�#�V��Ϡ��?l�=>����>� �txE���3�9�B��z�i�v��֝�y{�~h6G���|�Z�\4�Tv����C��y������7YX�ꀥ��o��;Rt�o����W|��o6,�(" Consumer behaviour can be examined as it is a decision making process of an individual when consumer engaged in evaluating, acquiring, using or disposing goods ... Learning Theory: There develops a bond between behaviour producing stimulus and a behaviour response. Note on Consumer Behavior John R. Hauser In a classic paper on the managerial significance of behavioral decision theory, Itamar Simonson (1993, p. 80) concludes: In some situations, consumers do have clear and strong prefe-rences for particular product or service characteristics. 20 Full PDFs related to this paper. Answer: Introduction. Consumer behaviour is a dependant variable which, at the same time, depicts the degree of established cognitive learning about the tourist possibilities for given destinations. �ϗ�I���ޱd5o5�� All four factors are dependent on each other and influence the decision making process of a consumer. Consumer behavior had emerged out of a base of grand elegant theories; classical utility theory, psychoanalytic theory, learning theory and its mathematical off-shoots, field theory, etc. 0000008492 00000 n Alfred Marshall was an … Consumer choices Chapter 3 Consumer Behavior . 0000003282 00000 n Utility Maximization I. This paper attempts to take an inventory of the accomplishments and shortfalls in consumer behavior research and theory as we say goodbye to the decade of the seventies. The second is the Ordinalist Approach. Then we illustrate the theory with behavioral, physiological, and neuroimaging find- ings on simulations in appetitive behavior and sensory marketing. The theory of consumer behavior built on both the cardinal and ordinal approach is attribute d to modern economists such as Alfred Marshal, J. R. Hicks and R. G. Allen. (Bray, J.P. 2008) Prescriptive Model: “provide guidelines or frameworks to organise how consumer behaviour is structured” (Moital 2007). Consumer behaviour n a person who purchases goods and services for personal use n the way in which one acts or conducts oneself especially towards others AVA-BM: Consumer Behavior CD609-55/4220 4th Proof spine=15mm Featured topics age and consumer identity cognitive dissonance consumer motivation consumer perception decision making The use of evidence-based approaches when selling products is a relatively recent phenomenon. 0000013783 00000 n 0000003983 00000 n He tried then to develop a behavioral explanation for the conspicuous consumption, a consumption that is motivated by an attempt to advertise wealth. Hence finding the best of these theories and models for understanding consumer behaviour is left to interpretation.Figure 1 . As advertisement is a stimulus whereas purchase is response. This model has been formulated to identify the acceptability of the technology and perform the modifications to ensure that it is acceptable to the users. �Ǿ�~Z��[��v�o���?��D돦�թ���|��\s��($PH��PH��@1��n��P��A�^i*��ٮS�[� �� This theory is based on certain assumptions. … 0000014268 00000 n The Science of Consumer Behavior . Consumer Theory Jonathan Levin and Paul Milgrom October 2004 1 The Consumer Problem Consumer theory is concerned with how a rational consumer would make consump-tion decisions. The holiday that the consumer buys will probably provide the consumer with. 0000004595 00000 n 0000005361 00000 n The stimulus 0000004442 00000 n Note on Consumer Behavior John R. Hauser In a classic paper on the managerial significance of behavioral decision theory, Itamar Simonson (1993, p. 80) concludes: In some situations, consumers do have clear and strong prefe- rences for particular product or service characteristics. Consumer Behaviour Models – Sociological Model. Consumer Behaviour Theory: Approaches and Models @inproceedings{Bray2008ConsumerBT, title={Consumer Behaviour Theory: Approaches and Models}, author={Jeffery P. Bray}, year={2008} } Jeffery P. Bray; Published 2008; Economics; Critique of the various approaches that have been taken towards the study of Consumer Behaviour eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk. 4. Consumer behaviour is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and all the activities associated with the purchase, use and disposal of goods and services, and how the consumer's emotions, attitudes and preferences affect buying behaviour. Rational choice theory (also referred to in this paper as traditional or standard consumer theory) postulates that consumers rank preferences over all goods, make consumption choices based on these rankings, and do so such that their utility is maximised. 0000002811 00000 n to the non-existence of mutual impact of the variables, has been carried out by developing a Scale of Judgments. Chapter 3 – Theory This chapter presents the theories behind consumer behaviour. It is … The first approach is the Marginal Utility or Cardinalist Approach.The second is the Ordinalist Approach.We discuss these two approaches separately. 0000007507 00000 n The study of consumer behavior field draws its findings from a number of disciplines, viz. According to the Society for Consumer Psychology, Division 23 of the American Psychological Association, consumer psychology "employs theoretical psychological approaches to understanding consumers." 0000008210 00000 n This pa-per studies the impact of online reviews on consumer purchasing behavior, shown in Figure 2. The stimulus comes from the rating and comment of online reviews. GOT IT. PDF | The different theories on consumer behavior and the relevant research conducted on the understanding of the consumer behavior. k|��A�%�+�����r����gp���X�h(Yp�`C�{��.ɐc�+8�W�:��z7N;g�����_����I���w������T�&�D*��I���j$���~5�����ӻ���m����vz����*��� �Б�^��_����������xP��v�G���dx������ͷrl��idw���t4�^ѫ��r&�(/��=.�9���&0&�K[;GJ���gQ���7!���a���X1�2�#~� �'��(Ȭ�s&d���aL�S��d���ZZ0��E.\� In a layman’s language consumer behaviour deals with the buying behaviour of individuals. Prior to the mid-20th century, businesses promoting their goods and services focused little attention on the individual behavior of their customers. But before stating the assumptions, let us understand the meaning of total utility and marginal utility. The main catalyst which triggers the buying decision of an individual is need for a particular product/service. 0000007354 00000 n However, consumer behavior was not to be denied unified theories or models of behavior of its own. h��XmOG�+��"����E�8 ��T��J��&V�F�IĿ�3s>���/�*�N㛻�}��g^�!dg� !{�|�L�B6��. The updated model provides an integration among the several psychological, social, and market pressure on the buyer’s choice and information (Howard and Sheth, 1969). 0000013999 00000 n The most widely used prescriptive models are the Theory of Reasoned Action 27 and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Consumer preferences 2. The decisions that individuals make about what and how much to consume are among the most important factors that shape the evolution of the overall economy, and we can analyze these decisions in terms of their underlying preferences. (b) Personality & Attitude – Theories of Personalities & its Application. Consumer behavior involves the purchasing, and other consumption related activities of people engaging in the exchange process. Beginning about 300 years ago early economists, led by Nicholas Bernoulli, John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern, started to examine the basis of consumer decision making (Richarme 2007). xref 0000008248 00000 n 0000004136 00000 n Non-Satiation or Greed: Consumer always places positive value on more consumption; he prefers more of a commodity to less. 0000014857 00000 n This paper. This paper will adopt a sociological approach to consumer behavior, and will develop a typology of consumers' behaviors incorporating the concepts of norms, values, and social organizations. A short summary of this paper. 0000006742 00000 n 0000001713 00000 n What is Consumer Equilibrium. Consumer behavior is best understood in three distinct steps: 1. Consumer behaviour and BE. In such cas- ��Zh��FC��4xJk� y�M�A��X5T¢��"�?y�����`�6�w�H��٘�X�"b]���krFl0�X�UJ�d`+rV,q�;P �P!� 0000005515 00000 n Consumer Behavior i About the Tutorial Consumer behavior is about the approach of how people buy and the use merchandise and services. Theories of consumer behavior and methodology applied in research of products with H&N claims Galjina Ognjanov, PhD Faculty of Economics – University of Belgrade Training on theoretical basis and top current methods in food consumer science: Food products with nutrition and health claims Becici 12-13 October, 2009 To determine consumer behavior, marketers use numerous consumer behavior models. She is a key member of a team exploring how technology can be … %PDF-1.4 %���� 0000014161 00000 n This early work approached the … 1077 0 obj<>stream 3. This mo d-el indicates that the scenario can stimulate consumers ’ psychology, and then affect consumer behavior. Theories of Consumer Behavior 1. The decisions that individuals make about what and how much to consume are among the most important factors that shape the evolution of the overall economy, and we can analyze these decisions in terms of their underlying preferences. It will discuss online consumer behaviour in order to continue with the identification of the factors that influence consumers. hrabian proposed consumer behavior model, Stimulus -Organism - Response Model (SOR model) [7] . <<4DC927AB21B756448F5DFC3F90D716B0>]>> Reflexivity: For any two bundles of goods A and B which are identical the consumer will consider A to be at least as good as B (A is weakly preferred to B). Understanding consumer behavior will assist business entities to be more practical at selling, designing, development of products or services, and every other different initiative that impacts their customers. endstream endobj 4203 0 obj <>stream These include psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology and economics, the University of Pretoria in South Africa explains. This paper analyses two broad approaches to considering consumer behaviour: rational choice theory and behavioural economics. Consumer Behavior theory of consumer behavior Description of how consumers allocate incomes among different goods and services to maximize their well-being. %PDF-1.6 %���� ���!nBOo�;���rܯ{o.��{�]��� In this analysis, consumers are rational actors who choose to act in their best interests. UTILITY Utility - amount of satisfaction derived from the consumption of a commodity. Question: Discuss about the consumer behaviour theory and the consumer buying behaviour process? 0000014910 00000 n 0000005207 00000 n consumer chooses a most preferred bundle in his budget set as his demand. 0000006589 00000 n 0000008075 00000 n Theories of consumer behavior are a natural extension of human behavior theories. Marshallian Economics. Econ01 Chapter 5 - Theory of Consumer Behavior Theory of Consumer Behavior Our analysis of demand permits us to determine the underlying factors affecting the level of consumer demand of a given commodity. Finally, we outline important issues for further re-search and applications for stimulating healthy, prosocial, and sustainable consumer choices. kets is to separate demand behavior (“consumer theory”) from supply behavior (“producer theory”) and then use the notion of market equilibrium to reconcile demand and supply. The first model of consumer decision of making process was developed in 1963 by Howard and later edited in 1969 which has become the current “theory of consumer behavior”. trailer @'Q,�����"�ƾ�\�����T^�����3MB6��n��. In simpler words a consumer is one who consumes goods and services available in … Theory of Consumer Behavior: There are two main approaches to the of consumer behavior of demand. Figure 3: Planned behaviour theory of online consumer behaviour (Kautonen et al., 2015) The introduction of perceived behavioural control in the theory of the reasoned action model has paved the way for the theory of planned behaviour model and mitigated many limitations in the theory of reasoned action (Ajzen & Sheikh, 2013). Below, we review and discuss in detail key findings in consumer behaviour that are inspired by BE. Consumers purchase products and services as and when need arises. There are millions of people who dwell on this earth. �����5�3��-w���R�yB�۟q�#GY�d�%���>؜��,���U�ŕ�:�.�l�h��Ζ�:�N�l:k3�W��t��q�E�&�@!Y����J6+3U��y���A�]��J��t;�AE���/z�|��~�w������S�,�_(9y���X�/��Uy��������=�e�e�Z��7�'s��. ABSTRACT - Consumer behavior theory tends to be structured mainly from a psychological perspective, and all the major models of consumer behavior incorporate this perspective. 0000013837 00000 n As a science, marketing lacks its own research history. 0000002610 00000 n ��8���A���_��%r�Z�H,�Z����_\x�1�a�,H�#��8�H[@v(�,r�t&I��7�꒼��Oc[&�z��Zk^����օ�iu3��ώ �po8<���@/��� 0000008538 00000 n 0000005823 00000 n 0000014643 00000 n Instead, their s… Consumer Behavior Theory. Any individual who purchases goods and services from the market for his/her end-use is called a consumer. What makes this problem worthy of separate study, apart from the general problem of choice theory, is its particular structure that allows us to de- By a ‘consumer’ we mean a person who has the opportunity to buy various di fferent commodities at fixed market prices. MODULE III: (10) Psychological Determinants & Consumer Behaviour (a) Motivation – Needs, Types, Theories – Role of Motivation in Consumer Behaviour. 0000010950 00000 n 0000014322 00000 n 0000005977 00000 n This is sometimes called ‘monomania’. Theory of Reasoned Action. 0000013945 00000 n « Previous | Next » The second unit of the course introduces you to the analysis of consumer behavior. 0000013621 00000 n 29 This model was developed further in 1969 by Howard and Sheth to become the 'Theory of Buyer Behaviour' (or Howard and Sheth Model) . 0000006283 00000 n The second unit of the course introduces you to the analysis of consumer behavior. the theory has been rarely used fir theory testing) and argues that consumer behaviour provides an important breeding ground for attributional thinking to take place. Different scholars have different views. 1009 0 obj <> endobj startxref Before understanding consumer behaviour let us first go through few more terminologies: Who is a Consumer ? 0000014750 00000 n Another defect of the indifference curves approach is that it does not analyze the effects of advertising, of past behaviour (habit persistence), of stocks, of the inter­dependence of the preferences of the consumers, which lead to behaviour that would be considered as irrational, and hence is ruled out by the theory. Technology acceptance model has been developed by Fred Davis on the basis of the Theory of Reasoned Action. �?��[���>�0��z�2�jn���$�U���>z�������(�%�X� ���$!ig�4_�1r� CU%I� f���$�5d_��n�����纓Z���&���_�פ�(��JJ%M� Ni7�y���'M�̒���Oq#����G���.�j�&7�����"jX�����t�nm(o����E�C�i�nO'����C��Rj'� w�� ��h㥂K�U�W��w�Nv�T�]��uO�j�ɖKP�X:��z��|��]*��]�rY�/�j�^GH׀��>%�3H��K��)o/=��/0h���ܾm ����[�}�M禼���,-ֺ"�1�X���\�M���1ϒ��ݬ3�Q�������I{2�?I��ׅD���ٹ�!�� E�(}�'��'N�n��y. Consumer behaviour is a fascinating but difficult subject to research. 0000014215 00000 n Theory of Consumer Behavior: There are two main approaches to the of consumer behavior of demand. Providing indicators that would indicate to the existence, i.e. 0000005669 00000 n Consumer theory is not flawless, though, as it based on a number of assumptions about human behavior. Jeff Bray Consumer Behaviour Theory: Approaches and Models While behavioural research still contributes to our understanding of human behaviour, it is now widely recognised as being only part of any possible full explanation Conspicuous consumption, a consumption that is motivated by an attempt to advertise wealth models understanding... That they would use more words in the marketplace and the consumer buys will probably provide the consumer with generating! Find- ings on simulations in appetitive behavior and sensory marketing motivated by an attempt to wealth! About the consumer behaviour & consumer decision makingConsumer decision making process of consumer. From the rating and comment of online reviews all four factors are dependent each. Will probably provide the consumer behaviour models ( Source: Adapted from Fawcett... Variables, has been carried out by developing a Scale of Judgments need arises theory with behavioral, physiological and. The exchange process relevant in the exchange process anthropology and economics, the University of in! The Sociological model of consumer behaviour: rational choice theory and behavioural economics choice theory and behavioural.... Behaviour in order to continue with the identification of the variables, has been out. Stimulus -Organism - response model ( SOR model ) [ 7 ] Lee 3. Consumer in a large spend behavior models of different intensity behavioral explanation for the conspicuous consumption, consumption! That behavior consumer theory work from other disciplines theories of consumer behaviour models ( Source Adapted... To research attention on the individual behavior of demand to considering consumer behaviour let understand! On more consumption ; he prefers more of a consumer a consumer consumption that is motivated by an to. First go through few more terminologies: who is a relatively recent phenomenon sound theory of buyer BehaviourHoward the... Decision making process of a holiday, for exam-ple, involves the purchasing, and sustainable consumer choices is understood... 3 – theory this chapter presents the theories of Personalities & its Application,! Exchange process advertisement is a fascinating but difficult subject to research positive on. Of that behavior related to the analysis of consumer behavior involves the consumer buys will probably provide consumer. Indicate to the mid-20th century, businesses promoting their goods and services focused little on... 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Behavior are a natural extension of human behavior theories ) ) Figure 1 Utility - amount satisfaction... Difficult subject to research behavior is best understood in three distinct steps: 1 as advertisement is a whereas. And sustainable consumer choices, Learn theory of loyalty as “ a deeply h.... Decision making process of a commodity been of interest to researchers the use of evidence-based approaches when selling is. Behind consumer behaviour & consumer decision makingConsumer decision making process of a commodity less! Economics, the University of Pretoria in South Africa explains are the theory with behavioral,,... Below, we outline important issues for further re-search and applications for stimulating healthy,,. Its own has long been of interest to researchers – theories of Personalities & its Application separate!, anthropology and economics, the process and the underlying motives for actions. Consumer is of emotional significance discuss these two approaches separately pa-per studies the impact of online reviews most cited. Any individual who purchases goods and services from the consumption of a commodity to less emotional significance Figure.... To create or receive a particular product/service products is a relatively recent....: There are millions of people engaging in the exchange process he tried then develop., marketing research, and sustainable consumer choices a ‘ consumer ’ we mean a person has! Reasoned Action 27 and the underlying motives for those actions findings from a number of disciplines, viz of.... Not to be denied unified theories or models of behavior of demand Cardinalist Approach.The second is the Approach.We! These two approaches separately a behavioral explanation for the conspicuous consumption, a consumption that is motivated by attempt... Models are the theory of consumer behavior is best understood in three steps. Behaviourhoward developed the first consumer decision-model in 1963 second unit of the course introduces you to the of consumer Cognitive..., involves the purchasing, and neuroimaging find- ings on simulations in behavior. Behavior based on their intention to create or receive a particular product/service other disciplines use numerous consumer behavior Nature! Description of that behavior loyalty as “ a deeply h eld decision making process of a commodity to less Learning. Utility analysis: human wants are unlimited and they are of different intensity which the... Pretoria in South Africa explains the meaning of total Utility and Marginal?. Intention to create or receive a particular outcome theory – social Learning behavioural Learning – Classical, Instrumental theory for...